|Articles or books are written by a scholar or a professional in the field.
|May be written by a professional writer who is not an expert in the field.
|Always cite their sources of information in the form of footnotes or bibliography.
|Rarely offers information (footnotes or bibliography) about the sources of information.
|Text gives research results, includes specialized vocabulary and is aimed at a scholarly audience.
|Text reports events or opinions and is aimed at a general audience (easy to read).
|Journal cover and pages tend to be plain in design, with few or no pictures or graphics.
|Tend to be highly pictorial. Magazines accept advertising.
|Most are published by professional organizations, associations, scholarly groups or universities and colleges.
|Are generally published for profit. May be intended as a vehicle of opinion: political, moral or ethnic.
|Authors are always named, and their institutional affiliation is given.
|Authors may be anonymous.
|Journal issues are likely to be successively numbered (for example, issue 1 includes pages 1-356, issue 2 has pages 357-585, etc.)
|Magazine issues are likely to begin with page 1.
|Articles may be long.
|Articles may be short, some only 1-2 pages.
|Journal issues tend to be published less often (monthly, quarterly, semi-annually).
|Magazine issues tend to be published more frequently (monthly, weekly, daily).
|Journals would usually be found in a library or in a professor's office.
|Magazines can be found at any bookstore or convenience store.
|Examples: Articles in Journal of American History, Journal of Educational Psychology or books published by a University Press written by a scholar with footnotes.
|Examples: Articles in Newsweek, National Review or books published by Scribner written by a journalist or professional writer without footnotes.