Initially only four components were included. Later, Melnyk and Fineout-Overholt (2010) added a fifth, representing time (i.e., the time it takes for the intervention to achieve an outcome, or how long participants are observed).
PICO Example 1
Does feeding via the transpyloric route vs. the gastric route improve feeding tolerance, and growth and development without increasing adverse consequences?
adapted from Fast Facts for Evidence-Based Practice in Nursing.
PICO Example 2
Will the emphasis of nursing assessment regarding need for and the early removal of indwelling catheters decrease the number of catheter device days and the incidence of CAUTIs?
adapted from Maryland Hospital Association.
|Example 1||Pediatric patients admitted to the PICU who are mechanically ventilated||Placement of postpyloric feeding tubes for all mechanically ventilated patients||Postpyloric feeding tubes versus gastric feeding tubes||Decreased incidence of aspiration pneumonia in the PICU patients receiving long-term mechanical ventilation|
|Example 2||Patients with indwelling catheters and increased number of CAUTIs||Nursing assessment regarding need for and the early removal of indwelling catheters||Without the emphasis of nursing assessment||Decreased incidence of CAUTIs and decreased length of hospital stay|
Godshall, M. (2016). Fast Facts for Evidence-Based Practice in Nursing (2nd ed.). New York: Springer Publishing Company.
Melnyk B. M. & Fineout-Overholt E. (2019). Evidence-based practice in nursing & healthcare (4th ed.). Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins.